Is there an extensive list of geographic "objects", "entities" or "features" that can be discovered in the geographic environment, relatively static and therefore can be geo-located and represented on a map, for example building, restaurant and also park and lake would be part of this hypothetical list, as opposed to, for example apple, cat, and fun.
The list is nearly endless...manhole cover, pipe line, mailbox, fire hydrant, zip code boundary, intersection, highway sign, historical marker, census block, speed limit area, fence, school boundary...
Wikipedia has a category of geography-related lists: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Category:Geography-related_lists
Potentially better than a "list of things" but not much. These types of questions should be community wiki unless you narrow down the scope to something specifically answerable.
This site gives general land form and water feature names as well as region specific feature names.