I am currently writing my Thesis and I need a book covering the geographical distance calculation like haversine and Vincenty. Since I am not of this field, I can't find books which might help me write. I am basically only interested in the calculations. I already have the original papers for the related stuff. But since I need some background and concept literature before I start with the calculation, I need a reference book.

closed as primarily opinion-based by Jason Scheirer, PolyGeo Nov 14 '16 at 21:22

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One place to start is the bibliography provided by the geographiclib of Charles Karney.

This starts at the begining with:

I. Newton, Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica (3rd edition, Roy. Soc., 1726), Book 3, Prop. 19, Prob. 3, pp. 412–416. https://books.google.com/books?id=0xYOAAAAQAAJ&pg=PA412

English translation: Newton's Principia: The Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy, by A. Motte (Adee, New York, 1848), pp. 405–409. https://books.google.com/books?id=KaAIAAAAIAAJ&pg=PA405

and goes through to:

G. Panou, The geodesic boundary value problem and its solution on a triaxial ellipsoid, J. Geodetic Science 3(3), 240–249 (2013). https://dx.doi.org/10.2478/jogs-2013-0028

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