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What I want to do is to fill a polygon (country) with a graphic file in any format (jpg., bmp., png.). It should look like this:

enter image description here

I'm aware that GIS soft is not proper for such a operations but maybe is there any option to do it only in QGIS.

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    Convert your image to SVG format then in Layer Properties > Style, change the Simple fill layer type option to SVG fill. You can look at this post to see how to import your svg files into QGIS: Importing SVG symbols into QGIS – Joseph Nov 24 '16 at 12:36
  • Seems it work fine, the only problem is to fit the flag into polygon. – icelandico Nov 24 '16 at 13:03
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    Yes, I too have that problem sometimes. Perhaps this post might help: Stretching of QGIS symbols – Joseph Nov 24 '16 at 13:12
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Use the "raster image fill" style on the polygon layer. This fill style allows drawing a polygon using a PNG/JPG/BMP/... etc.

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[EDITED, following @aldo_tapia judicious remark]

Using a gradient, you can obtain this:

Result Gradient settings

You have to use two stops at the border between colours, one for each colour, to make sure the result is neat. SVG would in any case be the way to go for any flag with more than straight lines!
Cheers,

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    to force discrete gradient, put one stop at 33.2% (in this case, black) and the other one in 33.3% (red). Do the same with 66.5% and 66.6% (red and yellow, respectively). – aldo_tapia Nov 24 '16 at 17:48

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