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I have a topographic map in raster file and I want to add the lines for fault systems on top (in shapefile), but I want to crop them so I'm only left with those that are within the raster image.

Is there a way to use the raster to select the shapefile that are within the boundaries of the raster file?

I'm using QGIS 2.10.1.

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    This is very interesting question to me, too... Just in case if you need to get this done immediately, a readily available tool would be Vector | Geoprocessing Tools | Clip. But this requires a polygon to clip. There will be options to obtain such polygon: (AA) Assuming your area is close to coastline, download a coastline polygon from somewhere, and modify it to fit your need. (BB) Manually digitize a polygon along the edge of your raster file. (CC) Use Polygonizer (Raster | Conversion | Polygonize) tool. I think (AA) is the easiest, while (CC) requires many steps to get usable polygon. – Kazuhito Nov 27 '16 at 4:01
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This is easier than it seems:

Raster -> Conversions -> Polygonize
Vector -> Geoprocessing Tools -> Clip

Depending on your raster file format, the options to polygonize are different, but commonly you choose "DN" as attribute. And if your raster has a proper mask layer (or NaN values), you can select that so these are omitted, too!

Et voilà, you get a simple vector file that traces the outline of your raster.

Then, use the Clip tool: Choose the fault polyline layer as input, and the polygonized raster layer as Clip layer.

Keep in mind that the polygonized raster will never be a perfect fit to the raster file. So depending on your use case, you might want to manipulate it (buffer +-) to ensure no polylines are cut off too short.

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