Well, you can still just store the location information (I am assuming you mean long/lat GPS coordinates) as two X and Y (or longitude and latitude) number columns. Or you could also use a text string encoded in GeoJSON. Or an XMLTYPE holding a GML encoding.
Those are all possible and legal, and fine if all you want is to store the coordinates, without doing any sort of processing in the database. If you want to perform any kind of spatial querying or processing (like: searching for entities that are within some distance of another, measure the distance between entities etc) then, as Vince indicated, you need to use some specialized data type. The simplest (and cheapest: it's free) is to use Oracle's native spatial type called SDO_GEOMETRY.
That type comes with Oracle Locator, the free part of Oracle Spatial. It is installed by default in all variants of the Oracle Database (including the free Express Edition). If it does not exist in your database, that means that the DBA (or whoever created it) did an explicit choice of NOT including it in the database. To add it, just ask him/her to use the DBCA (Database Configuration Assistant) to add it.