epsg:32717 is a UTM projection in meters, not degrees, which covers a thin strip from Ecuador down through Peru.
You're telling it the point coordinates you have are in epsg:32717. But these seem to be longitude and latitude, consistent with Ecuador.
That parameter doesn't project data for you. You're just tagging the coordinates with that CRS. To reproject, you need to use ST_Transform(geometry, crs_id)
You should also check the geometry type for your geo_data.geom field, for example in PgAdmin3.
- if the type is geometry(Polygon, 32717) it's in your UTM projection
- of it's geometry(Polygon, 4326) it's in wgs84 (lat/lon)
- if it's geometry(Polygon, 0) it's undefined. If so you'll need to set it using st_setsrid(geometry, crs_id). This can happen if you use shp2pgsql and forget to set the srid. I do this all the time :)
For the query to work, the polygon and point geometries need to be in the same crs.
If your polygons ARE in 32717 this should work