As you can see below I have 11 polygons in one shapefile, so in the attribute table there are 11 features.
As they all have the same attribute, is it possible to merge them into one feature in QGIS?
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Check the corresponding geoalgorithm in the Processing Toolbox (Ctrl+Shift+T).
If you wnat keep any other features in the layer (besides theese in your example) single, you can select required features and perform Merge Selected Features in editing. This option is in Advanced Digitizing Toolbar, you can activate it in menu View --> Toolbars
Another solution is the "Collect geometries" geoalgorithm, can be found under
Vector > Geometry Tools > Collect geometries.
Takes a vector layer and collects its geometries into new multipart geometries.
One or more attributes can be specified to collect only geometries belonging to the same class (having the same value for the specified attributes), alternatively all geometries can be collected.
All output geometries will be converted to multi geometries, even those with just a single part. This algorithm does not dissolve overlapping geometries - they will be collected together without modifying the shape of each geometry part.
See the "Promote to multipart" or "Aggregate" algorithms for alternative options.
The "Collect geometries" was applied with
"test" field as 'Unique ID fields'