Say I have an in-memory raster (i.e. a raster made by the MEM gdal driver), how can I load this raster into a QGIS layer? QgsRasterLayer's constructor wants a path to the raster file, but the in-memory raster doesn't have one.

Creating in-memory raster layer using PyQGIS? doesn't quite cover it as the solution seems to be to avoid creating your own MEM raster altogether.

If there is a way to load a numpy array as a QGIS raster layer, that would work too. I'm just trying to avoid having to write to the disk in case of a rapidly-changing raster.

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This has not been tested, but I would take the following approach: Instead of trying to load the data during the construction of the raster layer, load the data first into a Data Provider. This DataProvider can then be loaded into a raster layer.

The first step would be to create an empty QgsRasterDataProvider (i.e. don't provide any parameters). The documentation (here) shows a few potential methods to load the data afterwards:

If this worked, you are now ready to create an empty QgsRasterLayer and call its setDataProvider(provider) function (docs).

I hope this proves useful. Good luck!

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