After joining a CSV file, the columns in the attribute table show up as if the shapefile and CSV are joined, but no data shows up. After playing around with it, I found that if I join a second CSV file that has identical names for the provinces, I can get the values of the original to show up (if you're interested, joining the second CSV file alone will display its values).
Since I can access my data in the end, it's not an urgent question, but I was interested in what's going on. Here are some screenshots of what is being displayed.
Shapefile attributes table showing no values after being joined to CSV 1: Shapefile attributes table showing values of CSV 1 after being joined to CSV 1 and CSV 2:
Edit: Though I was originally able to see the data when I joined both CSV files, ArcMap would not show the values when choosing the symbology. I was able get things to display by creating a new CSV with the data from both and by changing the title of the Total Outputs from "TOut####" to "TO####". Still unsure of why there was ever a problem, though.