Go to File > New Print Composer > ok
Then find 'Add new map' icon on left hand toolbar- Click and drag on the canvas to create a rectangle. The current map view in QGIS will appear in this rectangle.
You can change the view in QGIS by zooming in, or out, or using the scale option. Then in the print composer window on the right hand side, in the Item Properties tab, you can 'Set to map canvas extent' and it will redraw the map in the rectangle.
Keep doing this until you get the view you want.
There is also an 'Add new scale bar' icon on the left hand toolbar to add a scale bar. You may need to play around with the 'Item properties' - the Units and Segments to adjust it to how you want it.
On the top toolbar you can then select to 'Export as image', 'SVG' or 'PDF'
There are many more features within the print composer that you can make use of to add professionalism to your map. It is well worth going through some tutorials to get to grips with.