I am trying to classify the elevation of the information on a raster by intervals. Right now I am only able to produce a continuous band of color.
How can one display the elevation information like this: elevation map.
On the layer styling tab (or right click on raster and select Properties), choose render type as 'Singleband pseudocolour'. There you can set interpolation to 'discrete' and use Mode 'Equal interval' and set the number of classes (see screenshot below):
You can individually change those colours in the boxes to ones you see fit, and even adjust the value ranges.