My experience is with 10.3.1, but I suspect it's much the same. ArcMap is very poor at handling some types of problems which SHOULD be handled gracefully but for which it includes no proper error handling and just crashes instead.
In my case, I know this happens when using a versioned SDE geodatabase and the MXD includes layers from a non-DEFAULT version which is no longer present in the SDE. Attempts to open the file result in a long delay, followed by a crash. In this particular case, the work around is simply to open a new blank map and then recreate a version with the same name as used previously. Then close it and reopen the old MXD.
However, I suspect that there could be a variety of other situations in which the geodatabase has changed slightly and therefore is no longer entirely compatible with the MXD which could cause such a crash. So if it is not a versioning issue, it may be difficult to guess at what else the cause might be and you may need to contact Esri support.