I have a raster layer ( that I converted in polygon as well) in which there are villages (black in the picture). I would like to do a euclidean distance but just from this feature "village". I was thinking to extract just this feature but I don't know how to do.
Raster Approach: The black areas have a unique value (or range of values). Use the Reclassify tool in ArcGIS. Give the village value(s) a new reclassified value of 1 and all other values a new reclassified value of NoData.
Vector approach 1: Start an edit session on your polygons. Select all polygons that are not villages. Delete the selected polygons. Save your edits.
Vector approach 2: Select all the village polygons. Run the euclidean distance tool on the polygons. All tools in ArcGIS only operate on selected features when some data are selected.