I'm trying to georeference some maps of Namibia and am having trouble. The projection stated on the map is the "Gauss Conform Central Meridian 15deg E. Bessel's Spheroid". I've tried using South African CRS : HBK_NO_15 and CAPE_NO_15 on the assumption that perhaps the "NO_15" refers to the central meridian. However, when I rasterize the files, they are upside down.

Does anyone know why this would be?

Please see related question, here.

  • @AndreJ you indicated here that I should only enter my Southern degrees in the negative, however, this document indicates that both X and Y axes (East and North) should be entered in the negative. Perhaps you could clarify? Commented Aug 21, 2017 at 18:55
  • The document refers to the projected coordinates in meters, not the degree coordinates.
    – AndreJ
    Commented Aug 22, 2017 at 5:35

1 Answer 1


GIS software always uses positive coordinates to the right and up.

The Sounth African and Namibian Lo CRS avoid negative coordinates, using positive coordinates suthwards. That's the reason you see your map upside down.

If you use a north-up project CRS like UTM 33S or Web Mercator, your map is displayed north-up again. The layer CRS can be different.

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