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I am fairly new to mosaic datasets and I haven't been able to figure out if what I'm attempting to do is appropriate for a mosaic dataset. I have constructed a mosaic dataset in ArcGIS 10.5, which is made up of rasters for 3 continents (Africa, Asia, South America/Latin America) at 5 different time points (2000, 2005, 2010, 2015, 2020).

Rasters within Mosaic Dataset.

Each of these rasters holds information on the number of people within each pixel. I'm interested in summing up population for both an area of interest and several time points of interest. To find my area of interest I've created a Reference Mosaic Dataset and set the spatial extent to my area of interest. This works fine. Here is my Reference Mosaic Dataset set to the extent of Kenya:

Spatial Extent of Reference Mosaic Dataset set to Kenya.

Then, to get my years of interest, I need to select each raster within the Reference Mosaic Dataset that is consistent with the year in question (note that the first screen shot doesn't capture a column that I've created for each Year). What I'd like to do is search my Reference Mosaic Dataset for each year and sum up the population within the area of interest. So, for my Reference Mosaic Dataset, I'd like to select first the raster for the Year 2000 and sum up the Kenyan population, then select the raster for the Year 2005 and again sum up the Kenyan population while keeping a running total (ie, 2000 population plus 2005 population). Ideally, given the size of these rasters, I'd like to somehow be working with only temporary rasters for each selection.

Is there an efficient way to iterate through the rasters within the Reference Mosaic Dataset where I select the first time point, perform an operation, save that result, then work with the next time point, and so on?

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Have a look at the Cell statistics tool, it honors the environment setting mask, so Kenya could be your mask and you could sum up the the rasters as you wish.

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After working with this more, the Export Mosaic Dataset Items tool allows for exporting only the rasters of a particular location and year of interest.

Export Mosaic Dataset Items tool populated to extract one year of interest for a location of interest.

Note that my mosaic dataset has a field titled "Year". Therefore, by setting the Query Definition to my year of interest and clipping the mosaic dataset by my location of interest (in the Clipping Template field), only the rasters meeting the search criteria are returned. Subsequent analyses will be performed on these returned rasters.

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