I snipped Germany and Afghanistan from the same Google Maps view:
They look like they are about the same size. Here is the full screenshot:
Now, I know that Germany appears larger because higher latitudes are stretched more when drawn on 2D. But I calculated the difference between the perimeter on latitude 34° (Afghanistan) and latitude 50° (Germany).
Given that the Earth's radius at the equator is 1, the relationship between latitude and the radius on that latitude should follow the circle function
So the radius is
0.926 in Afghanistan and
0.831 in Germany.
This is only a difference of 11% caused by the higher latitude. According to Wikipedia, however, Afghanistan is 83% larger than Germany.
So where does the rest of Germany's scaling on Google Maps come from?
Please excuse my incorrect naming of geographic terms, I have absolutely no experience in geography.