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I have searched Landsat TM images (path/row 149/37) for the year 2005 (1st Jan to 31 December 2005) on Glovis, Earth Explorer, Landsat Look and University of Maryland archive to work with. However, no scenes are available for the given period. Even no preceding and proceeding year's scenes are available on these sources which is quite surprising for me.

If anybody could please enlighten me why TM scenes are not available for the given period on these sources?

  • If this is likely to be open data then you could always research/ask at the Open Data Stack Exchange. – PolyGeo Oct 5 '17 at 8:30
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In the years between ~1999 and ~2010 (exact years depending on location) the distribution of Landsat 4 & 5 data was handled by regional distributors with what I'd expect to be a commercial goal, but also possibly in order to decentralize the burden of data storage.

As such, finding Landsat 4 & 5 data can become a bit of a challenge, as much of that data is still decentralized into potentially offline systems in various regions.

The centralized deposit of data has a nice overview of where data is available from different years: https://landsat.usgs.gov/sites/default/files/images/TM_L5_1984-2012.pdf

You can also try to find your area on this map - which shows the historical ground stations: https://landsat.usgs.gov/historical-international-ground-stations
It may be possible that the data that you are looking at is available at one of those.

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Landsat 4 was decommissioned in 2001. There should be TM (but not MSS) data for 2005 from Landsat 5, however as pointed out by Mikkel, its is not all centrally held.

There is some work being done to consolidate available data (see https://landsat.usgs.gov/landsat-global-archive-consolidation-lgac), but if there wasn't an active ground station (which seems probable for Central / South Asia - it looks like the KaShi station only started in April 2008, and I don't see another station that would have had coverage) or that ground station does not have records, or those records aren't being shared, then its simply not going to be available from the central repository. If there was no ground station for the location being imaged, an archive probably doesn't exist - there wasn't storage on the satellite.

So lets look at the ground stations (based on the historical list in Mikkel's answer):

  • Córdoba, Argentina (COA). No coverage for Asia.
  • Alice Springs, Australia (ASA). No coverage for central Asia.
  • Hobart, Australia (HOA). No coverage for Asia.
  • Cuíaba, Brazil (CUB). No coverage for central Asia.
  • Gatineau, Canada (GNC). No coverage for central Asia.
  • Prince Albert, Canada (PAC). No coverage for central Asia.
  • Beijing, China (BJC). Probably wouldn't reach that far west.
  • KaShi, China (KHC). Good coverage, but no Landsat 5 TM collection before April 2008.
  • SanYa, China (SNC). No Landsat 5 TM collection, only started 2016.
  • Cotopaxi, Ecuador (CPE). No coverage for Asia.
  • Libreville, Gabon (LBG). No coverage for Asia, last collection in 1999.
  • Neustrelitz, Germany (NSG). No Landsat 5 TM collection.
  • Shadnagar, India (SGI). Last Landsat 5 TM collection in 2001.
  • Parepare, Indonesia (DKI). Last Landsat 5 TM collection in 2001.
  • Rumpin, Indonesia (RPI). No Landsat 5 TM collection, only started 2014.
  • Fucino, Italy (FUI). Last Landsat 5 TM collection in 2001.
  • Matera, Italy (MTI). Probably no visibility that far east.
  • Kumamoto, Japan (KUJ). No Landsat 5 TM collection, only started 2013.
  • Hatoyama, Japan (HAJ). Almost certainly no visibility that far west.
  • Hiroshima, Japan (HIJ). No Landsat 5 TM collection.
  • Malindi, Kenya (MLK). First Landsat 5 TM collection in 2007, no coverage in any case.
  • Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan (BIK). Last (only) Landsat 5 TM collection in 1998
  • Chetumal, Mexico (CHM). First Landsat 5 TM collection in 2007, no coverage in any case.
  • Ulan Bator, Mongolia (ULM). Last (only) Landsat 5 TM collection in 1998
  • Islamabad, Pakistan (ISP). Last Landsat 5 TM collection in 1999.
  • Irkutsk, Russia (IKR). First Landsat 5 TM collection in 2006
  • Magadan, Russia (MGR). First Landsat 5 TM collection in 2007
  • Moscow, Russia (MOR). First Landsat 5 TM collection in 2007
  • Riyadh, Saudi Arabia (RSA). Last Landsat 5 TM collection in 2002
  • Hartebeesthoek, South Africa. No visibility
  • Ulsan, South Korea (ULK). No Landsat 5 TM collection, only started 2017.
  • Maspalomas, Spain (MPS). First Landsat 5 TM collection in 2006
  • Kiruna, Sweden (KIS). No visibility
  • Chung-Li, Taipei, Taiwan. Last Landsat 5 TM collection in 1997.
  • Bangkok, Thailand (BKT). Probably no visibility that far west.
  • Si Racha, Thailand (SRT). No Landsat 5 TM collection, only started 2014.
  • Mayaguez, Puerto Rico (UPR). No Landsat 5 TM collection.
  • So, there is no possibility to get these images. I have downloaded ETM+ scenes for the said period for time series analysis but due to scan line error there are gaps. Therefore, I was intending to get TM data as a replacement. – Ben Oct 5 '17 at 9:54
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    I think it is unlikely, but I would not go so far as to say "no possibility". Your question asked why you can't find the data, so I tried to explain that in my answer. – BradHards Oct 5 '17 at 10:03
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    I ran through the stations, and I'm confident that no station would have visibility for that time / row / path combination. Probably the closest will be Thailand or Beijing. – BradHards Oct 5 '17 at 10:59
  • thank you for enlighten me. The ETM scenes containing scan line error are better archived , on the contrary, TM sensor which has comparatively good quality of data during the period is hard to find. As a last resort, there is option to fill gaps found in ETM images and go through. – Ben Oct 7 '17 at 4:24

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