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When you open an RGB geotiff (e.g. bands 4-3-2 of Sentinel-2) as raster dataset in QGIS - what histogram manipulation is applied by default? Of course I can look at the min-/max-values, but I'd like to know the underlying formulas/algorithm.

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As already pointed out in the comments to my question, indeed the default manipulation is to cut the lowest and highest 2% of the values in each band. However, in addition, a histogram stretch for contrast enhancement is carried out after the cutting. (In MATLAB, for example, this would be realized by band = imadjust(band);.)

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