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I would like to use the automatic vectorization feature in ArcScan to create a centerline (line feature) for each of 20 rasterized polygon features.

Using a bi-color raster (created with polygon to raster tool and 1= foreground, 0= background values), and with centerline vectorization method selected from the ArcScan toolbar, I generated features from the vectorization tab on the ArcScan toolbar (and stored the output in a blank line feature class). However, the output created 3 small line features for only the smallest regions of the rasterized polygons and failed to create centerlines running the full length of my rasterized polygons.

I have read the related Creating Centrelines from Road Polygons/Casings? but did not find sufficient detail to create centerlines with ArcScan

I am using ArcMap 10.4.1 for desktop with an Advanced license and Spatial Analyst and ArcScan Extensions.

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Check out the vectorization settings within the ArcScan toolbar. There is a Maximum Line Width (MLW) setting that can be adjusted within a range of 1-100. Unfortunately, 100 is the maximum. FYI: a line width value is the product of the coordinate system measurement unit and the pixel size. If, at a MLW setting of 100, ArcScan doesn't vectorize a centerline for your entire area, then run the vectorize tool a second time using a raster with a larger pixel size. Prior to merging the two centerline outputs, I suggest snapping the two centerline outputs at their ends.

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I am guessing you are trying to create centerlines for polygons with this method. I saw a tool that maybe helpful for your work: Polygon to Centerline Tool for ArcGIS.

I'm still trying it, but you can learn more from the original question and answers here: Create Centerlines of a Polygon Buffer Feature, ArcGIS 10.3

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