I am running ArcMap 10.3.1 on a 2014 MacBook Pro, Windows 10 via Bootcamp. I downloaded a cartographic shapefile off of the US Census Bureau: Urban Areas --- cb_2016_us_ua10_500k.zip. Adding the shapefile immediately resulted in the error:
One or more layers failed to draw:
cb_2016_us_ua10_500k: There was a problem drawing the shapefile. Drawing aborted.
This is the first time adding shapefiles using ArcMap with this computer. Zooming in and out does not make a difference. I read this article and it does not seem to be the answer to my problem (https://support.esri.com/en/technical-article/000005082). I have not had issues adding geodatabases for a course I am taking. In the past I have had not an issue with shapefiles from the US Census Bureau. The shapefile does not appear to be too large either (attached is a picture of the folder).