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I have a polygon shapefile with 150 features. The shapefile has 10 columns of data, each representing a year. I would like to do a simple time slider Choropleth in an AGOL map to explore changes in these values over the 10 years.

I transposed the shapefile so now I have 1500 features, each one representing a polygon in a given year. I am now able to make the layer 'time-enabled' and upload it AGOL. When loading the feature layer in to a map it fails to render due to the size of the dataset (1500 features). Is this the right approach? It seems inefficient to have a replica of the polygon geometry for every year.

I also feel like that it is unlikely that AGOL wouldn't be able to handle this kid of task and am sure I have seen examples where far larger quantities of data have been represented over time.

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    I've not tried it in AGOL, but I know in ArcMap time enabled layer had an option for time based on a single field or multiple fields. If you configured it correctly, you could set each feature with a begin date/time and an end date/time. If AGOL supports the same, it should allow you to go back to just the 150 features. And documentation suggests hosted layer should support this capability if configured correctly doc.arcgis.com/en/arcgis-online/create-maps/configure-time.htm – John Mar 7 '18 at 17:40
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I would say the approach to uploading the 1500 feature file to AGOL is not, due to limitations Is there a feature limit in ArcGIS Online?

No a there is not a feature limit for Hosted Feature Layers. However, a limit is applied when adding features directly to the web map in ArcGIS Online. By default, there is a limit of 1,000 features when uploading a file (shapefile or CSV file) to a web map on ArcGIS Online. The 1,000 feature limit is a general limit enforced by ArcGIS Online to efficiently manage uploaded features. However, it is not a hard limit; therefore if the file being uploaded has more than 1,000 features, an error occurs or it causes performance issues.

The features in the file are stored in the web map when the file is added to the web map. Therefore, adding a large amount of data to a web map causes the map to have a large file size. When the map is downloaded by a web browser, especially on a mobile device, it may take a significant amount of time. Performance of the web map varies depending on the browser used to view the map, so keeping the number of features to a minimum provides the best results.

To upload a file beyond the feature limit set by ArcGIS Online, use feature services. Feature services are a more scalable way to publish features as it supports vector feature querying, visualization, and editing.

Your best option would be hosted layers. Prerequisites to publish hosted layers

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