I was wondering in what way (data format, infrastructure) 3D building data is stored in Google Earth. I am very impressed by the quality and performance. Are the vertices of the mesh stored in spatial coordinates or some other format?

For example: OBJ, Collada, FBX, OSGB etc.

In addition, is there an OGC compliant alternative for Open Source applications?

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    Certainly not familiar with specifics for underpinnings of Google Earth 3d, but CityGML is an OGC compliant format. I think the opensource Cesium.JS library can use CityGML). ESRI Multipatch is another framework I often see, though it might not be OGC compliant... but it's a format that QGIS readily imports for 3d visualization. (If you're curious to work with some of these data types, NYC 3d building data are posted here – mtreg Mar 29 '18 at 17:01

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