That toolbar is part of ArcScan, and so it may be that you have not enabled that extension.
From Getting Started with ArcScan:
As with other ArcGIS extensions, you must enable the ArcScan extension
in ArcMap before you can use it.
If this does not activate the buttons on that toolbar make sure that your map contains at least one raster dataset and be aware that:
Since ArcScan is designed to work with editing, you must start an edit
session to activate the toolbar.
ArcScan can vectorize any raster format supported by ArcGIS so long as
it is represented as a bi-level image.
It may be that you are trying to use it on an image that is not bi-level.