I am quite new in web mapping and I was wondering if I could implement a complete web GIS using just folium and pandas and ... and I mean that is it possible to do it without any geospatial web services server like geoserver or mapserver. Is it possible to do it without any server side technology?
It’s a bit of a vague question. If you want to to build custom maps that you can share with people via an html file than yes you can do it all in here. If you want to build an actual web mapping application that you want to deploy for clients to interact with than definitely not.
Just so you know folium has major limitations because you can only post so much data to the browser. You will need to get familiar with mapshaper or D3 packages in order to simplify your geojson/topojson if you are working with polygons. But I must say I love folium. It’s great.