First idea: the Error Inspector table does usually includes the ObjectID of the possible errors, in the Feature1 column. Perhaps you could export the errors and use this in a join somehow. This path may be helpful if Python could use this link to limit marking actions somehow.
What will work: treat the topology like a data layer and play with its symbology, turn on/off symbology for exceptions, and/or change the symbology of your feature class to highlight what you want to make exceptions. You can also select the errors in the Error Inspector table, right click to select the features. Leaving the errors for your rule marked as errors, go back and use the Fix Topology Error tool (a hidden gem) on the Error Inspector Toolbar to click on/select your attribute exceptions and mark them as exceptions.
This could result in a few misses, but you can see them if you use your symbologies, the zoom tool, and SQL to analyze the results. Also, if you run your topology in, say, four quadrants, it should be easier to avoid losing an exception you just marked (my problem sometimes).