QGIS 2 and 3 as well seem not to store the Layer name (set via Layer Properties | Source | Settings | Layer name or via 'Rename' in the layers context menu) in styles files. I.e. if i have a PostGIS table 'flst_teil' and would like to have it in the Layers Panel in a nice human-readable form like 'Flurstück Teil'.
For QGIS 3 that astounds me even more, since herein I can explicitly select which configuration tab of a layer I wish to store:
Is this intented behaviour or a bug? Do I have a chance to achieve this or do I have to rename the layers any time I load them?