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This is a follow up to this question: Using GDAL to extract Corner Coordinates based on a jpg file's GPS EXIF data?

Per the answer I received to the above question, gdal_merge cannot merge JPG images that a are produced my most Drone manufacturers. The reason is that usually, Drone images do not include Corner Coordinates. All the Drone image Merging applications rely upon and use the rich set of EXIF GPS coordinates inside Drone JPG images (includes altitude and camera angles).

Here is an example of drone image set that gdal_merge cannot merge: https://github.com/OpenDroneMap/odm_data_aukerman/tree/master/images

Is there any batch command line tool or code sample that can help to calculate and add Corner Coordinates to JPG images based on the rich set of EXIF GPS data that exists in Drone JPG images?

I am building a batch process and I cannot use GUI interactive tools like QGIS. I can create or call code in any language (Pathon, Node etc..) or preferably I can call another command line tool.

Here is an example of GPS EXIF data that gdalinfo provides. Note the zero Corner Coordinates.

Driver: JPEG/JPEG JFIF
Files: 0.JPG
Size is 4896, 3672
Coordinate System is `'
Metadata:
  EXIF_BrightnessValue=(7.53672)
  EXIF_ColorSpace=1
  EXIF_ComponentsConfiguration=0x01 0x02 0x03 0x00
  EXIF_CompressedBitsPerPixel=(3)
  EXIF_Contrast=0
  EXIF_CustomRendered=0
  EXIF_DateTime=2016:06:29 10:47:04
  EXIF_DateTimeDigitized=2016:06:29 10:47:04
  EXIF_DateTimeOriginal=2016:06:29 10:47:04
  EXIF_DigitalZoomRatio=(1)
  EXIF_ExifVersion=0230
  EXIF_ExposureBiasValue=(0)
  EXIF_ExposureMode=0
  EXIF_ExposureProgram=2
  EXIF_ExposureTime=(0.004)
  EXIF_FileSource=0x03
  EXIF_Flash=16
  EXIF_FlashpixVersion=0100
  EXIF_FNumber=(3.3)
  EXIF_FocalLength=(4.45)
  EXIF_GPSAltitude=(346.315)
  EXIF_GPSLatitude=(41) (18) (13.7576)
  EXIF_GPSLatitudeRef=N
  EXIF_GPSLongitude=(81) (45) (1.6792)
  EXIF_GPSLongitudeRef=W
  EXIF_ImageDescription=                               
  EXIF_Interoperability_Index=R98
  EXIF_Interoperability_Version=0x30 0x31 0x30 0x30
  EXIF_ISOSpeedRatings=100
  EXIF_LensSpecification=(4.45) (44.5) (3.3) (5.9)
  EXIF_LightSource=0
  EXIF_Make=SONY
  EXIF_MakerNote=SONY DSC 
  EXIF_MaxApertureValue=(3.44531)
  EXIF_MeteringMode=5
  EXIF_Model=DSC-WX220
  EXIF_PixelXDimension=4896
  EXIF_PixelYDimension=3672
  EXIF_RecommendedExposureIndex=100
  EXIF_ResolutionUnit=2
  EXIF_Saturation=0
  EXIF_SceneCaptureType=0
  EXIF_SceneType=0x01
  EXIF_SensitivityType=2
  EXIF_Sharpness=0
  EXIF_Software=eBee
  EXIF_UserComment=
  EXIF_WhiteBalance=0
  EXIF_XResolution=(350)
  EXIF_YCbCrPositioning=2
  EXIF_YResolution=(350)
Image Structure Metadata:
  COMPRESSION=JPEG
  INTERLEAVE=PIXEL
  SOURCE_COLOR_SPACE=YCbCr
Corner Coordinates:
Upper Left  (    0.0,    0.0)
Lower Left  (    0.0, 3672.0)
Upper Right ( 4896.0,    0.0)
Lower Right ( 4896.0, 3672.0)
Center      ( 2448.0, 1836.0)
Band 1 Block=4896x1 Type=Byte, ColorInterp=Red
  Overviews: 2448x1836, 1224x918, 612x459, 160x120
  Image Structure Metadata:
    COMPRESSION=JPEG
Band 2 Block=4896x1 Type=Byte, ColorInterp=Green
  Overviews: 2448x1836, 1224x918, 612x459, 160x120
  Image Structure Metadata:
    COMPRESSION=JPEG
Band 3 Block=4896x1 Type=Byte, ColorInterp=Blue
  Overviews: 2448x1836, 1224x918, 612x459, 160x120
  Image Structure Metadata:
    COMPRESSION=JPEG

GUI applications like QGIS can perfectly do this and there are many youtube vidoes (and paid courses) showing how to do that.

However, this question is looking for a sample code or command line application that I can call in my batch application.

closed as off-topic by PolyGeo Jan 17 at 2:16

This question appears to be off-topic. The users who voted to close gave this specific reason:

  • "When seeking help to debug/write/improve code always provide the desired behavior, a specific problem/error and the shortest code (as formatted text, not pictures) needed to reproduce it in the question body. Providing a clear problem statement and a code attempt helps others to help you." – PolyGeo
If this question can be reworded to fit the rules in the help center, please edit the question.

  • Possible duplicate of Drone aerial imagery to QGIS – Mat Jan 16 at 21:43
  • @Mat, it is not a duplicate. This question is seeking a code sample - and it seems that the answer is there is no such thing. – Allan Xu Jan 17 at 1:17
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Dont think its possible directly.

Usual process for this task is:

  • align/match set of photos,
  • create cloud of points (reconstruction of 3D scene),
  • creation of ortophoto (which is composit of rectified input photos), georeferencig ortophoto.

To produce ortophoto from set of images you need to use structure from motion software. Some software suggestions are listed Here: Drone aerial imagery to QGIS. I strongly suggest you read answers and comments on this post!

There are couple of open source projects if you want to use the code: Alice vision, PPT, OpenSfm, Open Drone Map ...

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