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This is related to geodata. I am a plant explorer and go into Ecuador and Peru looking for new species of plants. I take close to 1000 pictures each time I go, and I use a Garmin Oregon GPS device to create a track each day. I can use GeoSetter to read all the GPS Coordinate data and the Elevation and put it into the appropriate pictures which match the Track timestamp. My Garmin also records ambient temperature data in the track file, but I know of no program that will read it and put it in the appropriate field of the EXIF photos.

Is anyone aware of a program that will do this?

If not, is there a program that will read each waypoint in a track file and assign the various values to a list variables, so that I can then write a program to match them against the Creation Time of each of the photos in my directory?

I can then use ExifTool to write the temperature data back into the EXIF data.

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Not a complete answer, but QGIS may be a powerful tool in working with this problem.

I'd have started with Exiftool too. What you need to know is whether it can write custom metadata to the EXIF metadata - and/or whether non-EXIF metadata would do this job instead. Sorry, I don't know the answer to that. It sounds like you already worked out that this wasn't the answer...

QGIS, with the help of Exiftool and a plugin 'Geotag and import photos' has the ability to work with the EXIF data in the photos. It can also create a dataset of GIS points - by pulling location data out of the EXIF tags in the photos. That's not the same thing as having the data embedded in the photos themselves, but it may even be a more powerful way to work...

QGIS also has the ability to work with the GPX data - creating you a line (from the track) and a set of points (from the track points). I think that the points will have an accompanying data table which records anything (like temperature) which was recorded in the original GPX file (and if this doesn't happen automatically there will definitely be a workaround to reach the same situation).

Key to the linking of the two - is work to determine which GPX track point is closest to a specific photo point. This is a GIS task you should be able to work on in QGIS - there are tools/plugins for such things (you're taking one point dataset, and asking the software to work out which is the closest neighbouring point from the second dataset - then you're wanting to transfer data from one point to the other.

Clearly this feels like a complex multi-stage process if you're not an existing GIS user. For a GIS professional such a thing should be pretty simple - each stage of this on its own is a relatively simple GIS task.

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