SQLiteDB can be the file extension of any SQLite database, which can in turn have map information stored in it in any number of ways.
However, the good news is that in this case, the table structure you posted seems identical with that of a tiled map generated by MOBAC (Mobile Atlas Creator) in RMaps or Galileo (now Guru) maps format. I note from https://mobac.sourceforge.io/faq.html that MOBAC can also be made to read such file formats (with a bit of fancy footwork with configuration files) and convert to a locally stored zipped set of tiles, or even easier an MBTiles format database that you should then be able to import into QGIS without any difficulty.
Of course, it's possible the Locus file format is a bit different, but MOBAC can read several different sqlitedb tile formats, so it's worth a try.
I'm not familiar with Locus since I don't use Android, but it seems its offline maps come from various sources (including OpenStreetMap), and I assume whatever GPS tracks or waypoints you may have added could be exported separately. So you could also explore going back to the source for the underlying basemap, importing that into QGIS directly, and then layering on your tracks/waypoints. But I'm making assumptions about what you're trying to do that may not be warranted.