I have encoded the roads based on the column Fclass as an example of "international, primary, secondary, sub" Can I specify the scale range for each encoding on the same layer without exporting them to multiple layers?
In ArcGIS Desktop, you would do this by copying each symbology class to a different layer in the Table of Contents. I would add a definition query to limit each layer to that class; this keeps the layers from displaying or labeling twice. Then, in the layer properties, set the minimum and maximum scales using the General tab.
In ArcGIS Pro, this is probably doable without copying layers, but I am not using Pro now. Copying layers in the TOC can affect the legend and it can feel tedious, but it is way preferable to exporting data, which always leads to trouble later when no one knows why or how this data was created or if they can erase it. Even worse, exported data will not reflect updates in your original data unless you are scrupulous about re-exporting it regularly.