I need to calculate albedo from Landsat images using ArcGIS Desktop. I am fairly new in RS and GIS and I know that I have to change DNs to TOA and surface reflectance but I cannot find a procedure on how to do this in ArcGIS Desktop.
This is a duplicate to Landsat 8 - Reflectance Values which I already answered.
You can apply the conversion equations using the raster calculator function that's implemented in all ArcGIS versions.
You can download Level-2 "on demand" images directly from the USGS. You can use their EarthExplorer service. These products are already in Surface Reflectance.
You could also estimate albedo using Sentinel-2 which is also free and has a better temporal and spatial resolution, however the mission started in 2015 so there is no data from before that period.
Here is an open paper with both Landsat and Sentinel calculations: