QGIS does not have an exact equivalent to the ArcGIS feature "Data Driven Pages."
Here are some QGIS features that allow you to quickly pan from one location to another:
View extent in map canvas
In an atlas in the Print Layout, you can select a map and click "View extent in map canvas" in the item properties. This will zoom and pan the map canvas to the extent shown in the map item.
I mention this method because it's the closest direct equivalent to the feature you asked for, but it's not the most convenient way of panning the map between features, because you have to keep switching between windows. I think you'll find one of these other methods more useful.
Spatial Bookmarks allow you to “bookmark” a geographic location and return to it later. (see the user manual for additional information)
Once a spatial bookmark is created you can zoom to it by clicking on it in the list of bookmarks in the same panel. You can create bookmarks manually by zooming to an area of interest and clicking "Add Bookmark" in the Bookmark Panel. You can also create a list of bookmarks by creating a text file with the extension XML, in this format:
Duplicate the section between the
</bookmark>tags as many times as you want to create spatial bookmarks. Substitute xmin/xmax/ymin/ymax/srid values for each spatial extent between the corresponding tags. The easiest way to do this is to create a couple of bookmarks manually, export them as an xml file, edit the xml file to include your additional bookmarks, and import the edited file.
Zoom to Feature
Open the attribute table for the "index" layer. Dock the attribute table. Select the first feature in the table, and click the "zoom to feature" button. Repeat with the next feature.
If the built-in features of QGIS are not adequate, try some of the many plugins that other QGIS users have developed to supplement the built-in features of QGIS.
To install a plugin, go to the Plugins menu > Manage and install plugins... > find the plugin (eg by typing the name of the plugin into the search bar) > Install plugin.