I am having some technical problems with the clip raster by masked layer and I faintly remember using a different method a long time ago for a similar problem. Anybody familiar with another function?
Here's a general tip for when you're looking for a tool, when you have some idea what it does but you don't know what it's called.
Open the Processing Toolbox panel, and enter a short keyword into the search bar.
I searched for "clip" and found the following tools. According to the section headers, you can see which tools are for vectors and which ones are for rasters.
The GDAL tool
Clip raster by mask layer is the one you already tried (it's also accessible through the Raster menu). Try the SAGA tool
Clip raster with polygon.