I added an image, that explains my demand (see Schiefelsbach river). How can I do this?
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This OSM guide outlines how to make labels follow line features, in addition to providing good guidance on other common label styling tasks.
The steps are to select the layer labeling settings tab and then select 'advanced' from here you can choose 'curved' labels which follow the contours of a line.
The option is called "curved" if I remember correctly and you can find it in Advanced tab of the new labeling dialog.