I want to change the map distance units option in QGIS from metres to centimetres. I am currently using projection British National Grid EPSG 27700. I would like the print composer to print a map out on the scale 1cm:5000cm. Also how accurate is this projection relating to actual distance measured on the ground? To the nearest metre (as EPSG 27700 projection is in metres?)? Would there always be some margin of error in QGIS as it is open source software?
The distance-distortion in the map projection will be independent of the software (ignoring blunders); it is instead dependent on the projection used, and is also spatially variable.
Ordnance Survey National Grid is a Transverse Mercator projection chosen that the distances on the ground are identical to distances in the grid along two meridians: two lines of true scale about 180 km to the east and west of the central meridian (2°W). Away from these lines distance distortion is spatially variable. For example:
- In London, UK, the OSNG distance distortion is ~200PPM (or 20cm distortion per km)
- In Birmingham, UK, the OSNG distance distortion is ~400PPM (or 40cm distortion per km)
Note that this does not take into the height effect - the distance between two points on the ground increases the higher the elevation (about 1PPM per 6.4m height change).
For general mapping purposes this distortion between ground and grid may be considered entirely negligible; for precise engineering however this distortion is very significant and must be dealt with in some manner (for example, use of alternate projections: Snake Projection or Highways England Grids).