I have in my possession ESRI Demographic update data for multiple years: 2013/2018, 2014/2019, 2015/2020, 2016/2021, 2017/2022. I am currently trying to see if it is possible to compare each of these data sets against each other to ascertain potential customers for highspeed internet service in my county. For example, a time series analysis looking at population change using the total population estimates for each year. I have tried looking up this information on ESRI's website but I have not found anything that could help me answer my question, so I am hoping someone on the stack exchange with knowledge of ESRI Demographic Data could provide with one. If it is possible to do this, I am also considering using other variables too such as median household income, educational attainment, disposable income, age and other socioeconomic measures for marketing purposes.
If you are only looking at a single county, I assume you're probably looking at Block Group or Tract level data? Since the number of records in your dataset should be relatively small, and you have all of the data available, I would just export your selected records from the most recent dataset to a local geodatabase.
If you are just looking at population, it would be easy to just add new columns for each year's population (pop2013, pop2014, etc) and just join your "previous years" tables to your master, calculate the new field from the joined field, and repeat until you have all of your previous year data in your master.
If you want to add in more fields, look at using the "Add Join" or "Join Field" tool and scripting the process via ArcPy/Python, where you can manage the naming conventions for adding fields and methods of joining/calculating the attributes from one source to the master.