I am new to ArcMap, but I need to use it to extract data for my research work. I have shapefiles of the regions I want to work on. Now I want to extract data such as elevation, soil quality, rainfall, distance to coast, distance to capital city, etc on those regions. How can I go by it on ArcMap (version 10.5).

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    This is quite a broad question and is likely to be flagged for closure as such. I would recommend you visit ESRI's website and partake in some of their free tutorial lessons. Many of these will walk you through accomplishing the goals you have listed above. – Kingfisher Sep 26 '19 at 20:02
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You need to obtain other map layers which contain the data that you seek to extract. A good place to start would be to google something like ' "myarea" shapefiles ' where myarea is the place you are looking at (i.e. Germany shapefiles, Alaska shapefiles, Madagascar Shapefiles, etc..) Once you find a data repository that has some open source layers, you can begin to view them in GIS individually to confirm that they align with your existing layers that show your area of interest. Then, you can begin to extract, consolidate, and clean the data appropriately.

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    Better than "myarea shapefile" that is a specific file format look for "myarea gis data" for a broader reach or even "myarea mysubject data" as non geographical data could also be used if you join it to geodata. – J.R Sep 26 '19 at 22:45

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