Using QGIS - I have a vector of fault lines. I have point data in the form of a csv which I have also loaded into QGIS. I need to know how far each point is from the nearest fault line then enter this distance in a new column in the csv file. Any ideas?
Staying in QGIS, use the mmqgis plugin. Install the plugin, then use the hub distance tools. http://michaelminn.com/linux/mmqgis/
Be aware though, that it may only return the distance of the point from centre of the (fault) line. Explore your results to determine this effect.
you can do it by going firstly to the "measure line" in the upper status bar as you can see in the image below. then you can select points of your interest what you want to measure. Also you can add a new column to the csv file by double clicking on the layer>fields>toggle editing mode on>field calculator>create a new field. Good luck!