Using QGIS - I have a vector of fault lines. I have point data in the form of a csv which I have also loaded into QGIS. I need to know how far each point is from the nearest fault line then enter this distance in a new column in the csv file. Any ideas?
You can do this easily using the GRASS plugin with the v.distance module. Import both the fault lines (v.in.ogr in GRASS) and the csv file (v.in.ascii), then run v.distance with the "upload=dist" parameter.
The NNJoin plugin is an alternative for small datasets.
Staying in QGIS, use the mmqgis plugin. Install the plugin, then use the hub distance tools. http://michaelminn.com/linux/mmqgis/
Be aware though, that it may only return the distance of the point from centre of the (fault) line. Explore your results to determine this effect.
you can do it by going firstly to the "measure line" in the upper status bar as you can see in the image below. then you can select points of your interest what you want to measure. Also you can add a new column to the csv file by double clicking on the layer>fields>toggle editing mode on>field calculator>create a new field. Good luck!
try Closest-point plugin for QGIS as the attribute table of the point layer provide you with the distance to the closest line. Just have to save provide resulting table as a csv in QGIS.