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I am processing sentinel 2 data and while most bands look fine I have noticed an odd seam in band 1 of several images as can be seen from the attached image.

enter image description here

The image is cut from the ESA scene S2A_MSIL2A_20190921T101031_N0213_R022_T33VWD_20190921T130515 and displayed using only the value range 0-300 of band 1.

What type of artefact is this seam? Is it an error with my processing or a property of the instrument or what is it?

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The seam is not visible only on your L2A image, but also on L1C images, such as this one (created with EO Browser): Sentinel-2A L1C Image taken on 2019-09-21

This suggests that the banding is caused by aerosol scattering, which affects odd detectors differently than even ones because they look at the ground at slightly different angles (Sentinel-2 has 12 detectors in a staggered configuration, see e.g. Figure 4 of the MSI Overview ).

Ideally this effect of the aerosol would be removed by the atmospheric correction processor, but in this case a lot of it remains in the L2A surface reflectance image. I checked the latest L2A Data Quality Report and this issue does not seem to be mentioned specifically.

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