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Apparently, Landsat 8 occasionally acquires images at night-time during ascending passes. However, in the Google Earth Engine data catalogue (https://developers.google.com/earth-engine/datasets/catalog/LANDSAT_LC08_C01_T1_RT), there is no parameter like "orbit" or "pass".

Is there any other way to filter the Landsat 8 image collection for those night images?

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You could use the system:time_start property as explained here:

Using Google Earth Engine to filter Landsat Daytime image?

it contains the exact acquisition time. For example, get the latest available image in some collection:

// some collection
var s2 = ee.ImageCollection('COPERNICUS/S2')
// some place    
var p = ee.Geometry.Point(-72, -43)
// filter the collection by the place
s2 = s2.filterBounds(p)
// sort descending by time
var descending = s2.sort('system:time_start', false)
// get latest image (first of the collection)
var latest = ee.Image(descending.first())
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