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I am trying to do a timeseries analysis of morphological change in the coastal zone using images from Landsat 1 MSS, Landsat 5 TM, Landsat 7 EMT+ and Landsat 8 OLI.

My problem is that although I can use pansharpening to increase the resolution of Landsat 7 and 8 to 15 m, Landsat 1 and 5 do not have a panchromatic band to allow this and their resolutions at 60m and 30m respectively is too low to accurately map changes.

My question is: is there a technique to increase the spatial resolution of TM and MSS images in ArcGIS, GRASS or QGIS?

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You can resample the 60- and 30-meter rasters, outputting them to 15 meter pixel size to match the 15-meter rasters (don't forget to snap all of the rasters together!). However, such resampling won't somehow magically improve the coarser raster's resolution, it will only increase their file size. Although... those CSI TV detectives somehow have the amazing ability to convert a 2-pixel image of the getaway car's license plate into a clear, high-res image, complete with finger prints. They must use some special pixie-dust software, I dunno...

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