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In ArcGIS Desktop 10.7 we have IDW tool, but when you want to work with it you should need two layers such as : Some points and a closed polyline (Boundary) as following:

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then using IDW:

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but I have a problem. my data is not point is a polyline (Actually is a line joining points of equal rainfall on a map in a given period) as following:

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How should I use IDW tool?

This is because I don't have the lines in the first box of IDW tool:

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  • You have rainfall contours. IDW does not work with contour data. You could use the topo to raster tool, which uses a thin-plate spline interpolator, but that tool is specifically designed for elevation data and I have no idea how appropriate it would be for rainfall data. – user2856 Dec 12 '19 at 22:57
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I have found a solution! I think I should convert the feature to points by using "Feature Vertices to Points" Tool in

Data Management Tool > Feature.

why? bcoz in the real world we have discrete data not continues so the polylines are actually some simple lines between some points.

the definition of "isohyetal": is a line joining points of equal rainfall on a map in a given period.

the points are actually are the vertices of the polylines.

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as you see the polylines have been converted to some points. enter image description here

now we should use IDW tool:

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to choose "Z value field" in above you should find the rainfall column in the attribute table of the shapefile: enter image description here

the next step on the IDW window you should click on the Environment Button and then click on the "Raster Analysis" to choose your closed Boundary:

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now you see the result:

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good luck

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