You're missing just a little bit of detail in your screenshots that makes me think you're going to have some other issues crop up.
Can you please let us know how the symbology is being assigned in the first (working) example you gave. Is the field being symbolised the "Label" field, or something else?
For example, here I am symbolising DonutType
In your second example does that same field exist?
If the answer is that the same field exists in both datasets, then the below might help.
Right click the layer you have successfully symbolised in the Content Pane, Select Sharing, then Save as Layer file.
Then, left click your 2nd layer to which you would like to apply the symbols. On the top menu select appearance, then import symbology. In the import pane select the layer file.
Hope that helps.
Alternatively, when you do Symbology - Import, you can select to import it directly from another layer that you already have loaded. This is faster, but the lyr method is safer in terms of repeatability between projects and map documents.