I have a large Excel spreadsheet of addresses and project data. I would like to automatically convert this into a point shapefile based on the addresses.
Since these are not coordinates and are addresses, how do I do this using ArcMap?
The concept of converting physical addresses to locations on earth (and viceversa) is known as geocoding. Here is a good read on what geocoding is.
Furthermore, I suggest you take a look at Geocoding a table of addresses in ArcMap for a detailed guide on how to convert your Excel spreadsheet with addresses to a Shapefile.