My source data shapefile contains multiple attribute fields in Hebrew.
I dragged it into a new empty map in ArcGIS Pro and created a layer. The geometry and English fields of the attributes table are correctly displayed. The Hebrew ones appear as gibberish in latin characters.
I tried the same source file in QGIS. Once I set the layer encoding to Windows 1255, all fields were correctly displayed.
I don't seem to find in ArcGIS Pro any setting that allows to control the source file encoding.