I am having trouble finding a way to export only the labels of a layer in QGIS to either shapefile or geojson format. I also tried to find a way to export both the geographic feature plus the label to shapefile or geojson format, but every time I get only the feature itself. My ultimate goal is to have the labels in geojson format for web mapping purposes, since I already have a basemap but not the corresponding labels for some of the features.
Label are (usually) just display of an attribute of a geographic feature.
For displaying that, you need the geometry of your feature (so you know where the label has to be drawn) and an attribute table with the label text (so you know what to draw as a label)
So what you have done so far is probably right, you just need to load your shp or geojson to whatever platform you use and set the properties right (like no symbology for your point if you don't wan't to see it and labeling with the relevant field and placement option)
it's hard to help you more but I think that asking a new question along the line of "How to label a geojson in XXX without symbology" should help you more...