I need to create and export several maps, one from each raster layer in the TOC (~50, so preferably not manually) and I want the extent to remain the same. I have explored map series function with ArcGIS Pro but cannot figure out how to do it, as it only seem to work with different zoom/extents showing the same data layers. Any idea on how to accomplish this? Happy to try if some coding is required but please provide some hints as I am a beginner with ArcPy.
I have done something similar but everything was vector-based in my map series project.
I created a feature class at the exact extent needed. For me, I was making a series of maps showing birth rates around an entire state, but one map made for each birthing hospital (so it would show magnitude and geographic reach of different hospitals around the state between maps). I had a state border feature class I was using as my index layer. Even though it was just the boundary when you looked at the map, it had a row for each hospital I needed a map for, and a field in the attribute table I used to tell the map series to go through.
From there, I determined which other feature classes needed to change between maps. In my case it was a point feature class of hospitals, and some zip-code level data detailing birth counts by hospital and by zip. These features had page queries set up to make them data-driven. The field you use to set a page query needs to match the index map's field to display right. In my case, it was a field in the attribute table showing the hospital name. As long as the hospital name in my data-driven features matched the index layer's hospital name for each map, it could be correctly data-driven.
Finally, the map series tool allows you to specify a data-driven scale. So in my state boundary feature, I had the field for hospital names, but also a scale field. It was the same number for every row, but that way I could be totally sure it wouldn't change and therefore ensure the extent was fixed.