My question is very similar to Publishing Geoprocessing Service to ArcGIS Online, and is almost but not completely answered by Brad Posthumus as the top answer. Following from that, basically I want to know if a geoprocessing service that has already been published to ArcGIS Server (providing a REST URL) can be consumed by/added to an ArcGIS Online web map or app. According to Esri, a "geoprocessing service (URL)" can be "use[d] in web [and desktop] apps", but it's not clear if that includes ArcGIS Online web apps. I can't find an option in AGOL web map or web app builder that allows you to add these. At Use geoprocessing services from ArcGIS Online in Esri's documentation it says "using the REST URL specified in ArcGIS Online, you can incorporate geoprocessing functionality in your web applications" but doesn't elaborate.

My previous experience has been with authoring and sharing GP tools to other desktop GIS users via custom toolboxes. I'm trying to do something similar in AGOL for non-GIS users.

To be clear, I'm not asking about the Portal/web tools/GP widget workflow, this is specifically about AGOL.

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You cannot add a geoprocessing service to an ArcGIS Online webmap. I take your meaning of webmap to be the default map viewer in ArcGIS Online. (This is the same for the Portal webmap viewer).

You can add a geoprocessing service to a web application. A web application consumes a webmap. And, in this case, it can also consume other services, like a geoprocessing service. Specifically, if you were to create a Web AppBuilder application, there is a geoprocessing service widget that makes consuming the geoprocessing service straight forward. See the geoprocessing widget help for more info.

The particular help topic you reference (Use geoprocessing service from AGOL) explains how you can add an item into your AGOL space that references the geoprocessing service. This allows you to document the service and make it easier for people in your AGOL organization to find the service.

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