1

I would like to rename the band "B4_stdDev" to "Red_stdDev", and the band "B10_stdDev" to "Temperature_stdDev".

Example code:

var b4_stdDev = ee.Image().rename('B4_stdDev');
var b10_stdDev = ee.Image().rename('B10_stdDev');

var img = ee.Image.cat(b4_stdDev, b10_stdDev);
print(img);

This is a simple example. I actually have an image with approximately 60 bands with names like "B2_mean", "B2_savg", "B2_ent", etc.

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For doing this task you need the list of original band names (approximately 60 bands) and a dictionary with your desired changes for producing the list with strings for renaming.

For testing my approach, I first used USGS Landsat 8 Surface Reflectance Tier 1 product with 12 bands; where it was used multiple renaming with 'select' and 'rename' methods (only 4 bands involved). Code snippet looks as follows.

img = img.select(['B1', 'B2', 'B3', 'B4'])
  .rename(['ultra blue', 'blue', 'green', 'red']);

print("multiple replace in img", img);

Afterward, I created a list (only 32 elements) for simulating your possible result of application of 'bandNames' method in your image with approximately 60 bands. This list was mapped with a function where substitutions based in distinct values in referred dictionary were produced as expected. Following code snippet summarizes above criteria.

var names_dict = ee.Dictionary({'B1':'ultra blue', 'B2':'blue', 'B3':'green',
  'B4':'red', 'B5':'near infrared', 'B6':'shortwave infrared 1', 'B7':'shortwave infrared 2', 
  'B10':'brightness temperature' 
});

var band_names2 = ee.List(["B1_mean", "B1_stdDev", "B1_savg", "B1_ent",
  "B2_mean", "B2_stdDev", "B2_savg", "B2_ent",
  "B3_mean", "B3_stdDev", "B3_savg", "B3_ent",
  "B4_mean", "B4_stdDev", "B4_savg", "B4_ent",
  "B5_mean", "B5_stdDev", "B5_savg", "B5_ent",
  "B6_mean", "B6_stdDev", "B6_savg", "B6_ent",
  "B7_mean", "B7_stdDev", "B7_savg", "B7_ent",
  "B10_mean", "B10_stdDev", "B10_savg", "B10_ent"]);

print("band_names2 is simulating application of bandNames in your image with 60 bands");
print("band_names2", band_names2);

print("band_names2 size", band_names2.size());

var forRename = band_names2.map(function (ele) {
  
  return ee.String(ele).replace(ee.String(ele).slice(0, ee.String(ele).index('_')), 
    names_dict.get(ee.String(ele).slice(0, ee.String(ele).index('_'))));
  
});

print(forRename);

In your situation, multiple renaming can be produced with following line by using band_names2 and forRename lists.

img = img.select(band_names2).rename(forRename);

Complete code can be find here and result of running it in GEE code editor can be observed in following image.

enter image description here

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